Fabrication Additive des Matériaux Hors Équilibre et des Systèmes

Transverse axis FAMHES

The proliferation in recent years of articles and patents, regional and national initiatives around the direct additive manufacturing of structural steel parts testifies to the interest in this new method of manufacture by academic and industrial actors, as well as by the public authorities. This class of processes is indeed at the heart of the programs of the 4.0 plant. The Centtre des Matériaux, thanks to its multiple expertise in the physics of matter transformation in non-equilibrium conditions, in the development and simulation of innovative processes, in the design of microstructures as well as in the characterization and simulation of thermomechanical behavior and life expectancy, is a major player in this theme. He has been active since the early 2000s in several consortiums including academics, end-users of aeronautics or bio-medical, molders or toolmakers.

The creation of the FAMHES transverse axis mobilizing all of the laboratory's clusters provides an adapted response to the highly interdisciplinary character of the research theme around additive manufacturing. It aims to increase our visibility in strategic alliances with the industrial and academic worlds, to create a single and structured window in our exchanges with our partners and to support the investments considered priority by MINES-ParisTech. This axis deals with the process of selective laser melting of powder beds as well as the laser projection process which allows the addition of functions on existing parts or the repair of used parts. It brings together the multiple expertise of the three areas :

  • SIP cluster : powder design, process engineering and instrumentation, analysis and prediction of phases and microstructures developed by rapid solidification, post heat treatments, surface functionalization ;
  • MIMEX cluster : mechanical characterization, anisotropic laws of behavior, modes of damage and rupture ;
  • SIMS cluster : dimensioning of parts, design of architectured materials, metamaterials, simulation of additive manufacturing processes and residual stresses generated, simulation of behavior in the conditions of use.

Beyond the Materials Center, a close collaboration has been established with the Centre de Mise en Forme (CEMEF) of MINES ParisTech in Sophia Antipolis for the numerical simulation of the shapes and dimensions of molten baths and microstructures generated.

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Issues and research themes

Mapping of the "Additive Manufacturing" activity at MINES ParisTech led by the Centre es Matériaux.
The transverse axis FAMHES federates skills in elaboration / characterization / simulation
of the three SIP / MIMEX / SIMS poles of the CDM.

Additive manufacturing
Issues

 

This transverse axis FAMHES on the additive manufacturing of shaped parts deals with the selective laser melting of powder beds as well as the laser projection. By these processes, the combination of new possibilities in terms of geometries and materials opens the door to the design of innovative components to increase operating temperatures, lighten structures (architectural materials) and increase the demands mechanical compared to traditional casting processes. The laser projection also allows the addition of functions on existing parts or the repair and anti-wear coating (hardfacing) of used parts. The development of additive processes is based on a multidisciplinary approach based on the human skills and technical resources of the three groups of the Centre dess Matériaux in the fields of elaboration, metallurgy, mechanics and numerical simulation of materials and materials. processes.

Processes and materials


Beyond the determination and optimization of healthy part manufacturing parameters, the scientific objective is to better understand the physical mechanisms leading to :

i) the melting of a granular medium by the interaction of laser radiation and the stability of the liquid bath,
ii) the solidification and development of microstructures under severe conditions of thermal gradients and solidification rates, and
iii) the genesis of defects and residual stresses in manufactured parts.

This understanding contributes to improving the reliability of components with the development of process control, powder recycling and post-process control. This approach paves the way for the shaping of innovative materials that are sensitive to cracking. This includes a "design" of powders that must be adapted to the additive manufacturing according to the specifications of the intended application.

Structural and functional properties


The additive manufacturing of parts raises the question of their lifetime under realistic operating conditions. The prediction of the service life depends on the knowledge of the mechanisms of deformation, damage and rupture according to the typology and the size of the defects still existing after manufacture.

 
Online process control


Process control during laser powder bed melting is based on the measurement of local thermal fields in real time of the liquid bath associated with its dimensions, surface area and morphology. The instantaneous temperature mapping makes it possible to calculate the local thermal gradients (measured at 4 points of the liquid bath) for :

  • Estimate the local stability of manufacturing ;
  • Detect, identify, locate defects and their causes ;
  • Check the microstructure.

The final objective is to propose a tomography of defects of the part during manufacture and recognizable by their thermal signature.

Functionalization / Repair/ Coating

The significant growth of additive manufacturing strengthens that of powder spraying processes for coating or repairing surfaces, but also for forming mono- or multi-material preforms. The projection of powders makes it possible to repair or add new functions to the part resulting from additive manufacturing whose surface state must be mastered by completion or even structured. This concerns primarily fusion processes such as plasma projection, laser projection (cladding) or solid state as the dynamic projection by cold gas called "cold spray". All of these methods are based on controlling the states of matter at the powder particle scale throughout the incremental process and in relation to the out of equilibrium transformations experienced by the material. The reconciliation of these different "powder" processes within the FAMHES axis makes it possible to implement them and combine their advantages, from the manufacturing to the functionalization of the parts.

 

        

When the life of the parts is conditioned by that of a coating in a severe environment (corrosion, wear, thermal and mechanical shocks, etc.) then the mechanical strength of the interfaces and the resistance of the coating to the damage are crucial. The shock wave propagation LASAT mechanical test is developed for the non-destructive measurement of the adhesion of coatings. The analysis at different scales (nano-micro-macro) and the modeling of the thermomechanical behavior and the damage of the coated systems lead to the prediction of the service life.

 

Modeling and Simulation

The design and dimensioning of complex parts is now based on numerical simulation, which makes it possible to reproduce the solicitations resulting from their development and their operating conditions. In the case of a part obtained by additive manufacturing, it is important to simulate as faithfully as possible the process and its associated phenomena from the manufacturing stage. Simulation allows thermal, metallurgical and mechanical effects during manufacture to be considered as a robust tool for i) estimating residual stresses and associated deformations and ii) predicting the microstructure resulting from the fabrication and its evolution during post-treatment stress relieving, recrystallization or precipitation.

             

The simulation of these processes is then dominated by the multiphysical and multiscale aspects (from the liquid bath to the room). Due to the excessive duration of current simulations (even longer than manufacturing), no software has yet been adopted for additive manufacturing. The FAMHES axis of the Centre des Matériaux and the Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux (based near Nice) combine their efforts and invest in their own works combining simulation and validation experiments for the development of a business code applicable to the field of additive manufacturing both on powder bed and by laser projection. The objective of such a software is to simulate the manufacture of shaped and industrial size parts in reasonable computing times, while taking into account the boundary conditions closest to reality; its purpose being an aid to the production of parts ready for use.

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Related studies

From 2002 to 2017

 

  • 10 thesis supported
  • 4 thesis in progress
  • 6 thesis to come
  • 1 post-doc et 1 post-doc coming soon
  • 7 CoMaDis mastères, 2 DMS mastères and 1 DMS mastère to come
  • 4 "binômes" of Corps des Mines de Paris
  • 1 student of the École des Mines de Paris
  • 1 engineer internship 2nd year and 1 engineer internship 3rd year in progress
  • 1 internship of engineer by alternation
  • 10 multi-stakeholder structuring projects (1 CETIM Large Powder Project, 1 MOSAIC FRAE, 3 ANR (PROFIL, MANSART 2, ALMARIS), 1 MERLIN European Project, 4 FUI (FADIPLAST 2, FALAFEL, MOULINNOV, PALOMA) and 1 upcoming PIAVE, 1 Carnot inter-Mines project, 1 Transvalor software collaboration
  • 7 patents, Publications.

 

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Les dernières publications

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Constance Chanh, Anas Gourment, Betrand Petit, Anne-Franoise Gourgues-Lorenzon. Experimental determination of 3D crack propagation scenario in resistance spot welds of a martensitic stainless steel International Journal of Fracture, Springer Verlag, In press, ⟨10.1007/s10704-022-00626-2⟩

Raffaele Russo, Vikram Phalke, Didier Croizet, Mustapha Ziane, Samuel Forest, Frank Andrs Girot Mata, Hyung-Jun Chang, Arjen Roos. Regularization of shear banding and prediction of size effects in manufacturing operations: A micromorphic plasticity explicit scheme International Journal of Material Forming, Springer Verlag, 2022, 15 (3), pp.21. ⟨10.1007/s12289-022-01657-9⟩

Kevin Pachuta, Halyna Volkova, Benjamin Hirt, Marie-Hlne Berger, Emily Pentzer, Alp Sehirlioglu. Liquid?phase exfoliation method to access cobalt oxide nanosheets in pH?neutral solutions Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Wiley, 2022, 105 (3), pp.1904-1912. ⟨10.1111/jace.18199⟩

Vikram Phalke, Tobias Kaiser, Jean?michel Scherer, Samuel Forest. Modeling size effects in microwire torsion: A comparison between a Lagrange multiplier-based and a CurlF p gradient crystal plasticity model European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, Elsevier, 2022, pp.104550. ⟨10.1016/j.euromechsol.2022.104550⟩

Tatu Pinomaa, Matti Lindroos, Paul Jreidini, Matias Haapalehto, Kais Ammar, Lei Wang, Samuel Forest, Nikolas Provatas, Anssi Laukkanen. Multiscale analysis of crystalline defect formation in rapid solidification of pure aluminium and aluminium?copper alloys Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Royal Society, The, 2022, 380 (2217), ⟨10.1098/rsta.2020.0319⟩

Flavien Ghiglione, Samuel Forest. On the torsion of isotropic elastoplastic Cosserat circular cylinders Journal of Micromechanics and Molecular Physics, World Scientific Publishing, 2022, pp.1-14. ⟨10.1142/S2424913021420078⟩

Stphane Gillet, Thomas Jacopin, Sbastien Joanns, Nacera Bedrici, Lucien Laiarinandrasana. Short-term creep and low cycle fatigue unified criterion for a hybridised composite material International Journal of Fatigue, Elsevier, 2022, 155, pp.106571. ⟨10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2021.106571⟩

Matti Lindroos, Jean-Michel Scherer, Samuel Forest, Anssi Laukkanen, Tom Andersson, Joona Vaara, Antti Mntyl, Tero Frondelius. Micromorphic crystal plasticity approach to damage regularization and size effects in martensitic steels International Journal of Plasticity, Elsevier, 2022, 151, pp.103187. ⟨10.1016/j.ijplas.2021.103187⟩

Kais Ammar, Tatu Pinomaa, Matti Lindroos, Paul Jreidini, Matias Haapalehto, Lei Wang, Samuel Forest, Nikolas Provatas, Anssi Laukkanen. Multiscale analysis of crystal defect formation in rapid solidification of pure aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys Preprint, 2022

Vincent Maurel, Marion Bartsch, Marie-Helene Vidal-Stif, Robert Vaen, Vincent Guipont. Coated single crystal superalloys: processing, characterization, and modeling of protective coatings Nickel Base Single Crystals Across Length Scales, Elsevier, pp.283-338, 2022, ⟨10.1016/B978-0-12-819357-0.00018-4⟩

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